ECN publication
Onderbouwing actualisatie BEES B. Kosten en effecten van de voorgenomen wijziging van het besluit emissie-eisen stookinstallaties B
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 14-1-2009
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-E--08-020 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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For the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) calculations were made on the effects of an update of the Dutch Emission Limits Combustion Plants Decree (BEES B). BEES B sets NOx emission limits for combustion installations between 0.9 MWth (boilers on gas and oil) and 50 MWth (total on one location). For coal boilers and gas engines, there is no lower capacity limit in BEES B. For gas turbines it is 1 MWe. Although Directive 96/61/EC, concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (the IPPC Directive), is designed for bigger installations, VROM wants to include the emission levels of the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for smaller installations as well. Other changes are the inclusion of wood boilers and new CxHy emission limits for gas engines. Furthermore, emission levels on SO2 and fine particulates (PM10), which currently only exist for coal, are extended to gas, oil and wood combustion. VROM intends to set the lowest level for BEES B at 1 MWth for all installations. Smaller installations will be addressed in other legislation. In the project a separation was made with other policies like BEES A, the Dutch Emissions Guidelines (NER) but not with NOx emission trading (for process emissions and locations with over 20 or 30 MWth on active installations). The trading level for combustion is 40 g NOx/GJ in 2010, but this will be decreased after 2010. The effect of the new sulphur and particulates level on the total Dutch emission is small, because most emissions come from other sources (total cost < 2 mln €). Because the limits are stringent they discourage the use of coal and heavy oil. Also solid biomass gets stringent limits on particulates (20 mg/Nm3 for existing and 5 mg/Nm3 for new installations, both at 6% O2). The main costs are related to engines on gas and biogas. The emission level of 30 g NOx/GJ fuel for new (from 2009) and existing (2015) installations reduces the emissions, of all engines including the small ones, with 7 kton in 2020 for 40 mln €/y. Although SCR (selective catalytic NOx reduction) is already state of the art technology for gas engines at greenhouses in the Netherlands, the experience with SCR on biogas engines is limited. For gas boilers the emission level will be set at 15 g/GJ for new and 20 g/GJ for existing boilers. This will reduce emissions in 2020 by 1 kton at a cost of 3 mln €/y. A reduction of 1.8 kton is related to a very stringent limit of 40 g/GJ for (bio-)oil use in diesel engines. In the used background scenario bio-oil use is expected to grow substantially. The additional costs are limited (2.2 mln €) because the use of SCR technology is already obligatory at this moment. The necessary SCR reduction efficiency has to be increased to around of 97%, which is rather challenging. The rest of the 10 kton NOx, 50 mln € package is related to SCR on all solid fuel burning (35 g/GJ), very low NOx oil burners (35 g/GJ), new gas turbines (30 g/GJ, only a small number of small gas turbines meet this level), and bringing existing solo gas turbines, mainly used for gas transport, to 45-65 g/GJ. The new emission level for CxHy, mainly methane (CH4), of 1200 g C/nm3 at 3% O2 for gas en-gines, will affect the suppliers of gas engines. If this would be methane exclusively, this would be equal to 2.3% methane slip or a 15% extra emission in CO2 equivalents compared to natural gas (56.8 kg CO2/MJ). Measurements on ten gas engines in the Netherlands (ranging for 1.5 to 5 MWe) showed that three don’t meet the new limit. The reduction in methane emission in 2020 will be in the range of 4 kton. Because the technology for flue gas methane removal is under development VROM will postpone a decision on this limit for existing installations by two years. With current technology this limit would cost over 20 mln € for a reduction of 8 kton methane (0,16 Mton CO2 eq).

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