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ECN publication
16.7% efficient solar cell using electromagnetic casting (EMC) multicrystalline silicon wafers in an industrial type solar cell process
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 6-9-2010
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--10-019 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
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Presented at: 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition - 5th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 september 2010.

Purpose of the work is to understand the efficiency performance of EMC p-type mc-Si wafers from 18 different positions along the axis of growth of a 2,000kg, 35cmx35cm cross section, 7m long ingot. The 35cm x 35cm mold yields 2x2 or 4 corner 156mm x 156mm size wafers. The multicrystalline wafers have been produced by the electromagnetic casting (EMC) method. This EMC method uses an electromagnetic field to confine the melt from the mold wall by electromagnetic force, F=JxB, and to melt silicon by induction heating. This technique enables semi-continuous casting by melting the charged material at the top and solidifying the molten material at the bottom of the melt without contact to the crucible wall. The solar cells were produced using a state of the art screen-print industrial type solar cell process . A mc-Si group produced by conventional mc-Si production method was included for reference. The average efficiency of the EMC produced wafers from bottom to top was 16,5% with a maximum exceeding 16,7%.

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