ECN publication
Title:
Aardgas en elektriciteit bij het gemeentelijk voertuigpark van Amsterdam.
 
Author(s):
 
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1990
 
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--90-045 ECN publication
 
Number of pages: Full text:
112 Download PDF  

Abstract:
This report describes an assessment of the potential for and the environmental effects of electric and CNG (compressed natural gas) powered vehicles in the communal vehicle fleet of the city of Amsterdam. This fleet consists of about 2900 passenger cars and vans, and 320 busses. For the introduction of CNG powered vehicles an economic criterion is used: vehicles are converted to CNG only if yearly costs decrease. Three scenarios are developed, ranging from a minimum scenario including only vehicles of a few large fleet owners to a maximum scenario including all passenger cars and vans that meet the economic criterion and some special vehicles (mainly garbage collection vehicles). The busses are stationed in two garages. For the introduction of CNG powered busses, two scenarios are developed. In the first scenario only the busses of the smallest garage are converted to CNG, in the second all busses are converted. For the introduction of electric vehicles the driving range of those vehicles is the crucial restriction. Two scenarios are developed. The first is based on the current leadacid batteries, allowing a maximum of 6,000 kilometers per year. The second is based on sodium-sulphur batteries, allowing a maximum of 12,000 kilometers per year. To evaluate the environmental effects of these scenario’s, an ’air pollution index’ is developed, which includes nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, and dust. The effects on carbon dioxide emissions are treated separately. The air pollution index decreases approximately 50% for CNG passenger cars and vans, 82% for CNG busses and 95% for electric vehicles, with regard to their conventional counterparts. The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions amounts to 29% for CNG passenger cars and vans, 18% for CNG busses and 16% for electric vehicles. The scenarios for CNG passenger cars and vans lead to a decrease of yearly costs, despite the large investments for filling facilities. The scenarios for CNG busses lead to an increase of yearly costs, because of the high conversion costs of diesel engines. If dedicated CNG-engines become available, yearly costs will decrease. From an economic point of view, the introduction of electric vehicles is, given the current prices of vehicles and batteries, hardly feasible, even if the environmental benefits are taken into account. Special attention is given to social-psychological problems that are connected with the introduction of a new technology like CNG powered vehicles. These problems mainly concern the attitude of drivers and maintenance personnel. An extensive list of problems as well as related solutions is given.


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