ECN publication
Lead free metallisation for silicon solar cells: results from the EC2Contact project
Hoornstra, J.; Broek, K.M.; Granek, F.J.; Schubert, G.; LePrince, C.; Whal, G.; Lenkeit, B.; Horzel, J.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 1-6-2005
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-RX--05-017 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
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Presented at: 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 juni 2005.

This paper reports the successful development of lead free thick film metallisation pastes for contacting crystalline silicon solar cells, as performed in the EC2Contact project. Due to detailed characterization, we now understand the process of contact formation of front side metallisation pastes to silicon. New test procedures have reduced the number of experiments. Silver pastes with lead free glass frits were formulated on basis of the contact model and tested using the new approaches. Cells were produced on texturized Cz crystalline silicon and SiNx anti reflection coating. Using the best lead free silver front side paste, a fill factor of 77.2% and efficiency of 17.0% was reached, equal to results from a reference paste using leaded frit. The best rear side aluminium paste with lead free frit performed similar as compared to the reference aluminium paste with 76.5% FF and 17.1% efficiency

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