ECN publication
The European Project FLEXCELLENCE Roll to Roll technology for the production of high efficiency low cost thin-film solar cells
Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.; Haug, F.J.; Ballif, C.; Fischer, D.; Soppe, W.J.; Andreu, J.; Fahland, M.; Roth, K.; Topic, M.; Wilford, T.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 11-9-2006
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-RX--06-048 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
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Presented at: 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 september 2006.

FLEXCELLENCE ( is a STREP financed by the 6th framework program of the EU. It started on October 1st 2005 and is set to last during 3 years. FLEXCELLENCE aims at developing the equipment and the processes for cost-effective roll-to-roll production of high-efficiency thin-film modules, involving amorphous (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H). Eight partners, with extended experience in complementary fields, are involved. Within the first year of the project, a hot wire chemical vapour deposition system (HW-CVD) has been built; and a roll-to-roll deposition system for microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MW-PECVD) has been further developed and put into operation. In the meantime, the very high frequency (VHF) PECVD pilot line at VHF-Technologies is being upgraded to allow higher throughput. Regarding the optimisation of the VHF-PECVD process, device grade quality microcrystalline silicon has been deposited on 30*30cm2 at 2nm/s and laboratory scale a-Si:H and µc-Si:H cells have been developed in a new double chamber system on plastic substrates: so far, these cells achieve a conversion efficiency of 6.2% and 8.2%, respectively. In addition, a 2D simulation program developed by the UL-FEE has shown that 10% area losses for the monolithic interconnection are achievable on the flexible VHF-Technologies modules. Finally, a first cost calculation has demonstrated that production costs below 0.8 €/Wp should be reasonably achievable with single a-Si:H cells, and that an important part of this cost is for the encapsulation.

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