ECN publication
Progress in N-type Si Solar Cell and Module Technology for High Efficiency and Low Cost
Song, Dengyuan; Xiong, Jingfeng; Hu, Zhiyan; Li, Gaofei; Wang, Hongfang; An, Haijiao; Grenko, Brian; Borden, Kevin; Sauer, Kenneth; Roessler, Thomas; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Haitao; Bultman, J.H.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G.; Venema, P.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 3-6-2012
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--12-016 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
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A novel high efficiency solar cell and module technology, named PANDA, using crystalline n-type CZ Si wafers has moved into large-scale production at Yingli. The first commercial sales of the PANDA modules commenced in mid 2010. Up to 600MW of mass production capacity from crystal-Si growth, wafer slicing, cell processing and module assembly have been implemented by the end of 2011. The PANDA technology was developed specifically for high efficiency and low cost. In contrast to the existing n-type Si solar cell manufacturing methods in mass production, this new technology is largely compatible with a traditional p-type Si solar cell production line by conventional diffusion, SiNx coating and screen-printing technology. With optimizing all technologies, Yingli’s PANDA solar cells on semi-square 6-inch n-type CZ wafers (cell size 239cm2) have been improved to currently have an average efficiency on commercial production lines exceeding 19.0% and up to 20.0% in pilot production. The PANDA modules have been produced and were certified according to UL1703, IEC 61215 and IEC 61730 standards. Nearly two years of full production on scale-up lines show that the PANDA modules have a high efficiency and power density, superior high temperature performance, near zero initial light induced degradation, and excellent efficiency at low irradiance.

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