ECN publication
Kolen als industriële brandstof.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1981
ECN report number: Document type:
ESC-9 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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This report discusses the potential penetration of coal as a fuel in the Dutch industrial sector up to the year 2000. The study indicates the possible ways coal can be utilized with due consideration of bottlenecks that may occur. In chapter 3 the data collected on energy use in industry for the base-year ]977 are presented. In this year the industrial energy use of primary fuels was almost completely based on oil and natural gas. Data on natural gas expenditures were ohtained from the national gasproducing company (Gasunie) and from a survey among all gasdistributing companies. The use of natural gas represents 76% of the total industrial energy use of primary fuels. The oil-share is considerable smaller and amounts to about 15%. In this figure the byproducts of the oil industry (9%), such as fuel gasses, are not included. Data concerning the use of oil were obtained from an existing TNO data base on emissions, which contains precise figures on installed capacltíes. Chapter 4 deals with energy consuming equipment in the industrial sector. Information was obtained from an inventory on capacities of steamboilers in the Netherlands. Capacity utilization rates in the different industrial sectors were obtained from other sources. To be able to estimate replacement of equlpment, an inventory was made of installed boilers as from 1953. On the basis of an assumed average boiler lifetime of 25 years the replacement could be calculated. Based on the information of chapters 3 and 4 assumptions required for the calculatlon of the amounts of coal that could be introduced in the Dutch industry are distussed in chapter 5, including the options to enlarge the share of coal such as coal gasification and centralized steamralsing equipment burning coal. In chapter 6 a number of cases for coal use were calculated with the assumptions formulated in chapter 5. Also cases in which 25% and 50% of the amount of natural gas respectívely was substituted by coal gas were included. The results indicate that coal gasification will increase the share of coal in industry considerably with a limited increase of SO2 and NOx emiseions. Two important subjects related to coal use in industry are dealt with in chapters 7 and 8, these are combined heat and power generation and coal prices for different users including costs for handling and transportation. The main conclusion of the study is that the maximum amount of direct coal input in the industrial sector will be more limited than usually expected. Depending on the assumed minimum feasible capacity of coal boilers, the share of direct coal use in the total of primary fuels will range between 25% and 17%. These theoretical amounts, will be substantially reduced by various bottlenecks that may appear. The share of coal could be increased considerably by the introduction of coal gasification.

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