ECN publication
Optimisation of integrated energy and materials systems. Linked energy and material flows; methodological considerations and model calculations for the Netherlands beyond 2000.
Gielen, D.J.; Okken, P.A.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1994
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--94-010 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
93 Download PDF  

In order to define cost-effective long term CO2 reduction strategies an integrated energy and materials system model for the Netherlands for the period 2000-2040 is developed. The model is based upon an energy system model (MARKAL) that is used in 12 IEA countries including the United States, Japan and the European Community in ETSAP (Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme) Annex V. Using detailed compilations of data characterising available and prospective technologies in the materials system and in the energy system, and incorporating projections and assumptions about the costs and availability of fuels the model configures an optimal mix of technologies can be calculated to satisfy the specified energy and product/materials service demands. This study concentrates on CO2 emission reduction in the materials system. For this purpose, the energy system model is enlarged with a materials system model including all steps ’from cradle to grave’. The materials system modeI includes 29 materials, 20 product groups and 30 waste materials. The system is divided into seven types of technologies; 250 technologies are modeled. The results show that the integrated optimisation of the energy system and the materials system can significantly reduce the emission reduction costs, especially at higher reduction percentages. The reduction is achieved through shifts in materials production and waste handling and through materials substitution in products. Shifts in materials production and waste management seem cost-effective, while the cost-effectiveness of shifts in product composition is sensitive due to the cost structure of products. For the building sector, transportation applications and packaging, CO2 policies show a significant impact on prices, and shifts in product composition could occur. For other products, the reduction through materials substitution seems less promising. The impact on materials consumption seems most significant for cement (reduced), timber and aluminium (both increased). For steel and plastics, the net effect is balanced, but shifts between applications do occur. The MARKAL-approach is feasible to study integrated energy and materials systems. The progress compared to other environmental system analysis instruments is much more insight in the interaction of technologies on a national scale and in time. Interactions between different policy areas can be studied, and costs are explicitly considered in the calculations.

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