ECN publication
Strategies and instruments to promote energy efficiency indeveloping countries: project working paper 4: energy andenvironment in the global cement industry
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1995
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--94-035 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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The title project makes a preliminary assessment of major implemented andongoing policy initiatives to improve industrial energy efficiency in the developing world. In addition, it sets out to identify possibilities for transfer of appropriate technology from OECD member states to enhance energy efficiency and environmental performance of manufacturing industries in the developing world. In this report energy use and environmental pollution in the cement production, as well as options for energy conservation and pollution reduction, are analyzed. The aim is to propose national and international policy options concerning energy conservation and pollution reduction in the cement industry in developing countries. Cement consumption in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean is very dependent on the general economic performance. Most technological innovation has focused on saving costs by scaling-up and improving efficiency of kiln technology. Especially in the last decade energy saving grinding technology received more attention. Energy costs are divided about equally between electricity (mostly for raw material and clinker grinding) and fuel (for clinker burning). The conservation potential appears quite large in all considered regions, but especially in Africa and Asia. The primary emissions to air are CO2 and particulate matter. Emissions of NOx, and in some cases SO2, are also demanding more attention. A positive contribution to the problem of environmental pollution can be made by use of secondary raw materials and fuels. Cement kilns offer possibilities for use of waste materials. The most effective measure for CO2 emission reduction is the addition of secondary raw materials during clinker grinding. It appears that there is considerable scope for energy conservation and pollution reduction, when the present technical options are implemented. This implementation, however, is often seriously hindered by lack of mastery of technology, lack of information, lack of insight, lack of incentives, and lack of institutional support.

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