ECN publication
Strategies and instruments to promote energy efficiency indeveloping countries: synthesis report
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1995
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--95-106 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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Chapter 2 provides a conceptual framework for the study, starting with adiscussion of essential concepts such as primary energy, end-use energy, and energy efficiency. Next, some main issues are addressed related to the measurement of energy intensity for homogeneous end-use applications. Finally, some methods to analyse changes in energy demand and energy intensity at high aggregation level are outlined. Chapter 3 puts industrial energy use in the developing world in a global perspective. Also the significance of industrial energy use in developing countries to global CO2 emissions is outlined. A more detailed account of the energy efficiency situation in the developing world for four specific industrial sub-sectors is given in chapter 4 (cement, iron and steel, aluminium, and pulp and paper). For each of these sub-sectors, possibilities as well as the scope for improvement of energy efficiency in the developing world, are presented, based on 'best practice' plant performance in OECD countries. Chapter 5 provides an overview of policy measures taken and instruments applied globally to bring down levels of industrial energy intensity. After reviewing general policy approaches pursued in the developing world, these are put in perspective of policy interventions in OECD countries. Furthermore, consideration is given to major implementation issues in developing countries. Chapter 6, 7 and 8 present a broad assessment of a great number of specific policy initiatives on industrial energy efficiency improvement in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Moreover, an analysis is made of inherent barriers and stimulating factors to the improvement of energy efficiency levels. An attempt is made to answer the question as to how these factors can be positively affected by policy interventions and the most effective policy instruments are assessed. The report concludes with observations and recommendations on promising possibilities for cooperation between North and South to raise industrial energy efficiency levels in the developing world in chapter 9. 5 figs., 11 tabs., 64 refs., 1 appendix

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