ECN publication
Melting of biomass residues and waste to (renewable) energy and raw materials: possible fuel mixtures and design of a melter process
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research 1-5-2006
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--06-013 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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After conversion of biomass containing and biomass feedstocks (into energy) by e.g. combustion or gasification the mineral content in the form of ashes or char has to be disposed of. This can both be problematic and costly. A possible solution is a smelter process to produce synthetic basalt, heat and/or electricity. Several possible (biomass) residues have been identified as potential feedstocks in this project. For these streams (sewage sludge, gasification and combustion ashes) calculations on melt characteristics (e.g. viscosity and liquidus temperature) have been performed. Mixtures of the feedstocks have been prepared and lab-scale smelting tests carried out. From the samples the most promising materials have been analysed by XRD and SEM. Furthermore, a preliminary process design, including mass- and energy balances, has been made for a commercial facility having a capacity of 25,000 ton/a. It is concluded that with a careful selection of the feedstock mixture, it seems technically possible to produce synthetic basalt that meets the requirements for building applications. The composition of the product can be well predicted from the composition of the feedstocks. The produced materials have a good micro-crystalline structure, required for basalt. The economics of the process have not been studied in this project.

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