ECN publication
Demand Side Management achter de meter; Raming verduurzamingspotentiëlen
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Energy in the Built Environment 12-12-2006
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-E--06-037 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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This report describes the technical potential for increasing the sustainability of the built environment by application of advanced control systems. Attention has been focused on control systems using environment adaptive, user adaptive and user educating control, including demand response. The technical potentials estimated are meant for prioritising research and are strongly dependent upon assumptions that could not always be verified within this research. The technical savings potential of advanced control systems in the whole built environment is estimated to be of the order of 190 PJp of primary energy per annum (6% of the Dutch total) and 12 Mton CO2 emission reduction per annum (7% of the Dutch total). In the residential sector automated user adaptive control represents about two third of the estimated savings potential, and and user educating control about one third. In the service sector the majority of the potential is covered by improved operation and maintenance through on going monitoring. In addition to the use of advanced control systems for the reduction of primary energy use, it is also possible introduce demand response in the built environment. This does not directly lead to the reduction of the primary energy use, but it will be necessary in future electricity grids with a high penetration of intermittent, renewable energy sources. In the residential sector there is a significant potential for demand response by shifting the electricity demand of various appliances: 34 PJe demand response per annum. The additional potential for the service sector could not be estimated due to a lack of data. These estimations of potential were based on the current composition of the building stock and the domestic equipment currently used. Future potentials will depend upon the development of the building characteristics and the domestic equipment used. It is suggested to focus technology development on the following issues: 1. user adaptive control in dwellings 2. user educating control in dwellings 3. automated demand response with domestic appliances 4. support tools for monitoring of operation and maintenance of service sector buildings. During the further development of these technologies it is important to involve users in an early stage and to reduce the autonomous energy consumption of the control systems. Both this research and practical experiences show that the performance of a building is heavily dependent from the control and use of the building. Therefore suppliers of domestic installations and appliances are recommended: 1. to increase the robustness of installations and appliances towards user behaviour by including user adaptive and user educating control systems; 2. to systematically monitor the comfort delivered and the energy consumption in practice after introducing a new technology, and compare it to the comfort and energy performance intended.

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