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ECN publication
Internal gettering of iron and chromium to improve multicrystalline silicon wafers
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 3-6-2009
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--09-080 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
4 Download PDF  

Presented at: 3rd International Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Trondheim, Norway, 3-5 juni 2009.

Metallic impurities in interstitial form are one of the most important limiting factors for minority carrier lifetimes in p-type silicon. Interstitial impurities can be transformed into less harmful precipitates by annealing. In this way, it is shown that the minority carrier lifetime can be increased with one order of magnitude for iron and with two orders of magnitude for chromium.

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