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ECN publication
Optimizing screen printed n-type solar cells towards 20% efficiency
Romijn, I.G.; Burgers, A.R.; Geerligs, L.J.; Carr, A.J.; Gutjahr, A.; Saynova - Oosterling, D.S.; Anker, J.; Koppes, M.; Fang,  Lang; Jingfeng, Xiong ; Gaofei, Li ; Zhuo, Xu; Hongfang, Wang; Zhiyan, Hu ; Venema, P.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 22-3-2012
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--12-009 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
5 Download PDF  

We present the status of our process development of silicon solar cells on n-type base material. Yingli Solar is manufacturing modules based on these cells, the Panda modules. We are constantly working on performance improvements, while maintaining low costs. In November 2011, we obtained a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency on n-type Cz at our ECN laboratory of 20.0% (239 cm2) (in house measurement). To our knowledge this is the highest efficiency obtained so far with cell processing based on homogeneous emitter diffusion and screen-printed metallization. In this paper, we present an update of our cell process development, focusing on rear surface passivation.

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