Skip Navigation Links.

Search for publications:

Limit search to the fields

ECN publication
Contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols to PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands; measurement and modelling results
Weijers, E.P.; Sahan, E.; Brink, H.M. ten; Schaap, M.; Matthijsen, J.; Otjes, R.P.; Arkel, F. van
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research 5-10-2010
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-O--10-030 Other
Number of pages: Full text:
60 Download PDF  

Secondary inorganic and organic aerosols form a major fraction of particulate matter (PM). In the Netherlands, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) comprises on average up to 50% of the total PM concentrations. SIA, containing ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate, is produced in air, in droplets and on particles from sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia, following complex chemical reactions. SIA is almost completely of anthropogenic origin, as its precursor gases are largely emitted by traffic, energy production and agricultural sources. Emission densities of ammonia and nitrogen oxides in the Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. SIA not only plays an important role in air quality but also in environmental issues, such as climate change, acidification and eutrophication. To efficiently reduce SIA concentrations, emissions of precursor gases are regulated on a European scale, by means of, for instance, national emission ceilings. Important uncertainties regarding SIA still exist, even though considerable progress has been made over the last decades. Filter measurements have at least 25% uncertainty. In addition, ammonium nitrate is semi-volatile, which hampers a precise measurement.

Back to List