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ECN publication
New approach for firing optimisation in crystalline silicon cell technology
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 1-6-2004
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-RX--04-065 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
4 Download PDF  

Presented at: 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, 7-11 juni 2004.


A new approach for firing optimization is introduced and demonstrated on 10 different pastes. The approach uses fewer settings and is faster than the methods traditionally used. Therefore the approach will make evaluation of new pastes and processes easier. The method uses a cross belt temperature profile to subject a cell with screen-printed paste to different temperatures while firing in the infrared furnace. J-V data, spatially resolved wafer peak temperatures and spatially resolved contact resistances using the Corescan, are used to determine settings for final optimization. Optimal settings for the ten evaluated pastes were obtained in only two steps and using few cells. With only three cells, a scan over a temperature range of about 180°C could be performed. In this way also the firing window could be assessed. The method is applicable both in industry and R&D.

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