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ECN publication
More power and less loads in wind farms:
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Wind Energy 1-11-2004
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-RX--04-122 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
12 Download PDF  

Presented at: European Wind Energy Conference 2004, London, UK, 22-25 november 2004.


We consider a farm as a single energy extracting body instead of a superposition of individual energy extractors i.e. wind turbines. As a result we found two new hypotheses called Heat and Flux. Both hypotheses reveal that the classical operation of turbines in a wind farm at the Lanchester-Betz optimum does not lead to maximum farm output. However, when the turbines at the windward side of the farm are operated below their optimum, then the power of the turbines under the lee increases in such a way that the net farm production increases slightly. Next to this production advantage of Heat and Flux operation there is also a loading advantage. The average axial loading of the upwind turbines of a farm is reduced in a ?Heat and Flux?-farm. As a result those turbines generate less turbines so that the fatigue loads of the downwind turbines reduce too. The results were confirmed by in a boundary layer tunnel by means of differential measurements between a ?Heat and Flux?-farm and a classical farm.

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