ECN publication
Encouraging Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1-6-2011
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-O--11-046 Other
Number of pages: Full text:
19 Download PDF  

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reduces greenhouse gas emissions by separating CO2 from the flue gases of a large, stationary point source, transporting it, and isolating it from the atmosphere by injecting in a geological storage reservoir that is suitable for permanent storage (IPCC, 2005). Examples of CO2 sources to which CCS could be applied are coal- or gas-fired power plants, iron and steel factories, refineries and bio-ethanol plants. CCS consists of techniques that are partly in use in the oil and gas industry. However, the technology still needs to be tested in real life. Several demonstrations in non-power sectors are taking place in Norway, Canada and Algeria. Various countries are planning a range of more full-scale demonstrations of CCS in various sectors (Global CCS Institute, 2010). An advantage of CCS is that it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 85% compared to conventional technology (Viebahn et al., 2007), while continuing the use of fossil fuels for power or in other industries. Costs, however, are still high, technological risks are insufficiently covered, and in many jurisdictions, a regulatory framework for underground storage is still absent. In addition, there are concerns about public perception of underground CO2 storage in inhabited areas, the significant energy penalty of the capture process, sufficient global and regional storage capacity, and the risks and impacts of CO2 potentially seeping out of badly selected reservoirs.

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