ECN publication
Policy options to maximise zero-emissions vehicle sales in 2035
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 21-4-2015
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-O--15-002 Other
Number of pages: Full text:
20 Download PDF  

• Reaching 100% Zero-Emissions Vehicles (ZEVs) sales in NL in 2035 - incentivised by European post-2021 CO2 policy alone - would require a low 2025 CO2 emissions target (about 68 g/km), followed by an annual decrease of the CO2 limit at about the same pace. • Super credits are an attractive supporting option on the short-term, if bounded by both a low bonus factor and an overall cap.They also need to be phased out with increasing ZEVs share. • Introducing ZEV quotas could be considered if the European post-2021 CO2 trajectory will lack ambition and a long-term target. The option of tradable ZEV quotas offers the highest flexibility. • Including transport in the ETS, as an alternative for the vehicle CO2 standards, would mean a much smaller stimulation of ZEV production and thus would postpone ZEV mass-market penetration. Likewise, the Effort Sharing Decision on its own will not enhance ZEV mass-market penetration.

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