ECN publication
PID- and UVID-free n-type solar cells and modules
Stodolny, M.K.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Aken, B.B. van; Tool, C.J.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Romijn, I.G.; Venema, P.; Renes, M.; Siarheyeva, O.; Granneman, E.; Wang, J.; Ma, J.; Cui, J.; Lang, F.; Hu, Zhiyan; Loffler, J.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 10-8-2016
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-W--16-022 Article (scientific)
Number of pages:

Published in: Energy Procedia (Elsevier), , 2016, Vol.92, p.609-616.

In this paper we report on the high stability of our n-type front junction solar cells (n-PERT) exposed to potential-induced degradation (PID) and UV-induced degradation (UVID) conditions. These intrinsically stable n-Pasha cells enable PID- and UVID-resistant modules even with industrially low-cost standard EVA encapsulant, independent of system grounding and system voltage. Based on intentional modifications of the Boron emitter and/or the dielectric layer in the PID-free and UVID-free n-Pasha solar cells, we are able to replicate reported degradation effects and study the mechanisms behind it. A combination of altering the boron profile and the dielectric properties together with increasing the interface defect density Dit is detrimental for the stability. Applying our standard optimal B-diffusion and passivation scheme assure that the UV radiation and system voltage have virtually no effect on our n-Pasha cell and module performance.

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