ECN publication
Energiebesparing door elektrische auto's in stadsverkeer.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1990
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--90-038 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
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On behalf of the NOVEM a study has been carried out by the unit ESC of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) to calculate the energy savings aspects of electric vehicles. The primary energy use for 4 types of vehicles (VW Golf/Citystromer, Peugeot 205, Renault Express and Renault Master) with conventional, Na-S and Li batteries has been compared with the primary energy use of the same car with internal combustion engine on petrol or diesel. The energy savings on primary energy for electric vehicles with conventional (e.g. lead-acid) batteries vary from -4% to 20% compared to vehicles with diesel engines in 1990. Compared to petrol engines these percentages range from 20% to 30%. Due to higher changes in efficiency for internal combustion engines in 2000 the energy savings for vehicles with conventional batteries vary from -26% to +7% compared to diesel- and from 5% to 17% compared with petrol-vehicles.For the Na-S battery these percentages are always higher. This means that in urban traffic all electric vehicles with Na-S batteries save primary energy, upto 40% for the Peugeot 205 and the Renault Express in the year 1990. For future types of batteries (Li with solid electrolyte) the effects are still more positive. Calculations show, that in the year 2000 upto 40% of primary energy can be saved by the use of electric vehicles with Li batteries in urban traffic in comparison with diesel. The fraction of braking energy which is recovered by regenerative braking depends on the battery characteristics. For lead-acid batteries at about 14% of the intrinsie energy can be recovered by regenerative braking. For Li batteries with a very high charge/discharge efficiency this percentage varies from 18% to 20%. It can be concluded that electric vehicles using batteries with a higher energy density then the conventional types are a promising option for the future from an energetic point of view.

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