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ECN publication
Energy systems and CO2 constraints. An integrated assessment of energy technologies for reducing CO2 emissions at least costs in the Netherlands beyond 2000.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1-3-1994
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--93-014 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
115 Download PDF  

In order to detect cost-effective long term CO2 reduction strategies several scenarios are calculated with drastic (up to 80%) reductions of national CO2 emissions in 2030 and beyond. The energy system model used in this study (MARKAL) is used in 12 IEA countries including the United States, Japan and the European Community in ETSAP (Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programma) Annex IV greenhouse gases and national energy options. Using detailed compilations of data characterísing available and prospective energy technologies, and incorporating projections and assumptions about the costs and availability of fuels the model configures an opitimal mix of technologies to satisfy the specified useful energy demands. Techno-economic characteristics (lifetime, investment costs, availability, energy efficiency) for ca. 400 (new) energy technologies are compiled in this report. The model is used in a national costs minimizing mode with exogenous national maximum allowable emissions (’bubble’ concept), optimising the energy system for the period 2000 to 2040 simultaneously in steps of 5 years each. Few institutional and marker barriers are assumed, to reflect the maximum potential of (new) energy technologies. On the other hand bounds are imposed on the speed of marker penetration for new energy technologies to prevent unrealistic solutions, and there are lower bounds to ensure that older technologies will not be phased out rapidly, The model optinaises with a 5% discount rata.

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