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Publications from author Kram, T. 
Sijm, J.P.M.; Smekens, K.E.L.; Kram, T.; Boots, M.G.;
Economic effects of grandfathering CO2 emission allowances
ECN-C--02-022 EN april 2002; 58 pag.
Kram, T.;
The MATTER project : integrated energy and materials systems engineering for GHG emission mitigation
ECN-C--01-017 EN april 2001; 179 pag.
Seebregts, A.J.; Kram, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Bos, A.J.M.;
Endogeneous learning and technology clustering: analysis with MARKAL model of the Western European energy system
ECN-RX--00-028 EN maart 2000; 31 pag.
Published in: Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Seebregts, A.J., Kram, T., Schaeffer, G.J. and Bos, A.J.M. (2000) 'Endogenous (), , Ed., p.-.
Kram, T.; Seebregts, A.J.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Messner, S.; Schrattenholzer, L.;
Technology dynamics in energy systems models with perfect foresight
ECN-RX--00-041 EN maart 2000; 17 pag.
Published in: Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Kram, T. et al. (2000) 'Technology dynamics in energy systems models with per (), , Ed., p.-.
Seebregts, A.J.; Kram, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Bos, A.J.M.;
Modelling technological progress in a MARKAL model for western Europe including clusters of technologies
ECN-RX--99-028 EN augustus 1999; 16 pag.
Published in: Paper to be presented at the European IAEE/AEE Conference "Technological Progress and the Energy Challenge" 30 Sept. - 1 Oct. 19 (), , Ed., p.-.
Ybema, J.R.; Kram, T.; Rooijen, S.N.M. van;
Consequences of ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms: a tentative analysis of cost effects for EU Member States
ECN-C--99-003 EN augustus 1999; 26 pag.
Seebregts, A.J.; Kram, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Stoffer, A.; Kypreos, S.; Barreto, L.; Messner, S.; Schrattenholzer, L.;
Endogenous technological change in energy system models: synthesis of experience with ERIS, MARKAL, and MESSAGE
ECN-C--99-025 EN april 1999; 29 pag.
Seebregts, A.J.; Kram, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Stoffer, A.;
Endogenous technological learning: experiments with MARKAL: contribution to Task 2.3 of the EU-TEEM Project
ECN-C--98-064 EN december 1998; 87 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Menkveld, M.; Kram, T.;
Securing flexibility in the energy system to meet future CO2 reduction: an inventory of hedging options
ECN-RX--97-074 EN februari 1998; 19 pag.
Published in: Paper presented at the IEA 'Third Modelling Seminar' on 'Uncertainty and Policy Choices to meet UNFCCC Objectives', Paris, Octob (), , Ed., p.-.
Gielen, D.J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Kram, T.; Rooijen, S.N.M. van;
Post-Kyoto: effecten op het klimaatbeleid van de Europese Unie
ECN-C--98-040 NL 1998; 34 pag.
Koutstaal, P.R.; Kram, T.; Rooijen, S.N.M. van;
Verhandelbare CO2-emissierechten: een kwantitatieve analyse van een VER-systeem tussen Annex I landen
ECN-C--98-039 NL november 1997; 53 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Kram, T.;
MARKAL modelling and scenarios relating to availability of new energy technologies
ECN-RX--97-072 EN 1997; 24 pag.
Published in: Presented at IEA CERT workshop 'Energy technology availability to mitigate future greenhouse gas emissions', Paris, 16 June, 199 (), , Ed., p.-.
Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.; Vos, D.;
Lastenverdeling en kosteneffectiviteit van CO2-doelstellingen voor EU-lidstaten: een analyse op basis van scenariostudies
ECN-C--97-033 NL 1997; 23 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Lako, P.; Kok, I.C.; Schol, E.; Gielen, D.J.; Kram, T.;
Scenarios for Western Europe on long term abatement of CO2 emissions
ECN-C--97-051 EN 1997; 90 pag.
Kram, T.; Schol, E.; Stoffer, A.; Rothengatter, W.; G├╝hnemann, A.; Soerensen, M.M.; Stouge, A.; Suter, S.; Walter, F.;
External costs of transport and internalisation: synthesis report on TopicA: external costs of transport
ECN-C--96-069 EN 1996; 190 pag.
Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.; Vos, D.;
A technology approach to CO2 emission reduction objectives
ECN-RX--96-056 EN 1996; 31 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Lako, P.; Gielen, D.J.; Oosterheert, R.J.; Kram, T.;
Prospects for energy technology in the Netherlands: vol. 1:evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of energy technologies undera range of long term future conditions
ECN-C--95-002 EN 1995; 112 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Lako, P.; Gielen, D.J.; Oosterheert, R.J.; Kram, T.;
Prospects for energy technology in the Netherlands: vol. 2: technology characterizations and technology results [ECN-C--95-039]
ECN-C--95-039 EN 1995; 308 pag.
Kram, T.;
International energy technology portfolio assessment: ETSAP's contributions
ECN-RX--95-072 EN 1995; 19 pag.
Presented at: IEA/OECD/ETSAP seminar on the role of energy thechnologies toward sustainable development, Kansai Science City, Japan, 16-17 oktober 1995.
Okken, P.A.; Ybema, J.R.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.; Gerbers, D.;
Energy systems and CO2 constraints. An integrated assessment of energy technologies for reducing CO2 emissions at least costs in the Netherlands beyond 2000.
ECN-C--93-014 EN maart 1994; 115 pag.
Okken, P.A.; Gielen, D.J.; Kram, T.;
Correcting fossil fuel CO2 emission statistics for non-energy use, FGD and CO2 removal
ECN-RX--93-039 EN mei 1993; 23 pag.
Presented at: AGM 'Assessment of data bases on energy demand and supply in terms of their adequacy for use in studies of greenhouse gas emissions, Vienna, Austria, 5-7 april 1993.
Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.; Doorn, J. van; Gerbers, D.;
Drastische CO2-reductie hoe is het mogelijk : technologieen voor kostenoptimale vermindering van CO2-emissies in het Nederlandse energiesysteem ; op lange termijn
ECN-C--92-066 NL 1993; 272 pag.
Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.; Gerbers, D.;
Kansrijke energietechnieken: vier blauwdrukken voor een energiehuishouding met minimale emissies op lange termijn
ECN-C--93-036 NL 1993; 63 pag.
Kram, T.;
National energy options for reducing CO2 emissions, volume I: the international connection : a report of the Energy Technology Systems Analysis ; Programme
ECN-C--93-101 EN 1993; 188 pag.
Ybema, J.R.; Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.;
CO2 abatement in the Netherlands: a study following UNEP guidelines
ECN-C--93-021 EN 1993; 78 pag.
Okken, P.A.; Lako, P.; Gerbers, D.; Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.;
CO2 removal in competition with other options for reducing CO2 emissions
ECN-RX--92-025 EN 1992; 16 pag.
Presented at: First international conference on carbon dioxide removal, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 4-6 maart 1992.
Lako, P.; Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.;
Compilatie van technieken voor CO2-verwijdering bij aardgas- en kolengestookte centrales en voor waterstofproduktie.
ECN-C--92-064 NL 1992; 51 pag.
Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.;
Koleninzetstudie (KIS): Een verkenning van de rol voor kolen in de periode 2000-2030.
ECN-C--91-072 NL 1991; 126 pag.
Okken, P.A.; Ybema, J.R.; Gerbers, D.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.;
The challenge of drastic CO2 reduction: Opportunities for new energy technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the Netherlands energy system up ; to 2020.
ECN-C--91-009 EN 1991; 50 pag.
Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.;
The feasibility of CO2 removal within a national CO2 reducing policy. : Paper prepared for WCI conference Coal and the environment, London, 3-5 ; April 1991.
ECN-RX--91-032 EN 1991; 0 pag.
Presented at: WCI conference Coal and the environment, London, UK, 3-5 april 1991.
Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.;
Calculation of actual CO2-emissions from fossil fuels.
ECN-RX--90-048 EN 1990; 0 pag.
Presented at: ETSAP-IV workshop, Paris, France, 22-23 mei 1990.
Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.;
Impacts of environmental and oil-price constraints on automotive power systems and fuels.
ECN-RX--90-049 EN 1990; 0 pag.
Presented at: Conference on automotive power systems environment and conservation, Chester, UK, 10-12 september 1990.
Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.;
Kansen voor alternatieve brandstoffen in het wegverkeer in Nederland tot 2020 onder invloed van de olieprijs, NOx- en CO2-plafonds.
ESC-52 NL 1989; 82 pag.
Kram, T.;
Nieuwe energiebronnen in Japan. Opzet en uitvoering van energieonderzoekprogramma's.
ESC-31 NL 1985; 68 pag.
Dijkum, P.H. van; Kram, T.; Bogtstra, F.R.;
Energiebesparing gebouwde omgeving. Een technische en economische vergelijking van besparingsmogelijkheden in de gebouwde omgeving.
ESC-16 NL 1981; 137 pag.
Kram, T.; Sanden, A.M.W. van der; Visser, R.J.;
Optimale kapaciteit van warmtepompsystemen voor kollectieve ruimteverwarming.
ESC-14 NL 1981; 78 pag.
Dijkum, P.H. van; Kram, T.;
Introductie scenario's zonneboilers: energetische en economische gevolgen van de introductie van zonneboilers en andere verbeterde warmwaterapparatuur in Nederland.
ESC-3 NL 1980; 0 pag.