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ECN publication
The challenge of drastic CO2 reduction: Opportunities for new energy technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the Netherlands energy system up ; to 2020.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Policy Studies 1991
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-C--91-009 ECN publication
Number of pages: Full text:
50 Download PDF  

Energy technology options for CO2 reduction are evaluated in a process-oriented dynamic national costs minimizing LP-model of the Dutch energy system. Several scenarios are calculated with drastic (up to 78%) reductions of national CO2 emissions in 2020, in order to identify cost-effective CO2 reduction strategies. Cost-emission trade-off curves are constructed and an overview (’shopping list’) of energy technology options relevant for CO2 reduction is presented. CO2 reducing options in all scenarios include: renewables, recycling, fuel switch, efficiency improvements and energy conservation. In some of the scenarios two additional options were considered: nuclear energy and CO2 removal. The average costs to reach 70% CO2 reduction by the year 2020 are around 100 Dfl/ton CO2, corresponding to less than 1% of the Dutch GNP in the policy time period 2000-2020. At high reduction percentages marginal costs increase sharply due to the introduction of new expensive energy technologies. The average costs to reach 50% CO2 reduction are less than 40 Dfl/ton CO2.

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