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ECN publication
Wafer-based crystalline silicon modules at 1 Euro/Wp: final results from the CrystalClear integrated project
Sinke, W.C.; Hooff, W.M.G. van; Coletti, G.; Ehlen, B.E.; Hahn, G.; Reber, S.; John, J.; Beaucarne, G. ; Kerschaver, E. van; Wild - Scholten, M.J. de; Metz, A.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 21-9-2009
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--09-034 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
13 Download PDF  

Presented at: 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, 21-25 september 2009.

CrystalClear was an EU co-financed Integrated Project aimed at developing technology for wafer-based silicon solar modules at 1 € per watt-peak manufacturing costs and a strongly improved environmental profile. The project consortium has selected a number of technologies that potentially comply with these aims as well as research that serves as basis for further developments (beyond the project aims). These technologies have been demonstrated in the form of demonstrators, i.e. full-size modules featuring all innovations necessary to comply with the aims. The project has shown that wafer-based multicrystalline-silicon solar modules can be produced at 1 € per watt-peak at a world-record efficiency of 16% and an energy pay-back time of less than 2 years in Southern Europe

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