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ECN publication
Record cell efficiencies on mc-Si and a roadmap towards 20%, the EC project TOPSICLE
Weeber, A.W.; Tool, C.J.J.; Manshanden, P.; Tathgar, O.; Gjerstad, M.; McCann, M.; Raabe, B.; Huster, F.; Fath, P.; Ponce-Alcantara, S.; Coello, J.; Canizo, C. del; Roberts, S.; Bruton, T.M.; Heasman, K.C.; Nagel, H.; Lenkeit, B.; Schmidt, W.; Russell, R.; Devenport, S.
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Solar Energy 11-9-2006
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-RX--06-035 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
6 Download PDF  

Presented at: 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 september 2006.

Record cell efficiencies were achieved with newly developed processes. An integral approach from wafer to module was used. Starting with high-purity feedstock, high-quality large-area mc-Si wafers were made and characterized. Initial lifetimes of up to 160 ┬Ás were observed. Three cell concepts were developed further to obtain high efficiency cells: 1) based on screen-printing and complete inline processing; 2) based on V-grooved texturing and roller printing; 3) based on a hybrid buried contact concept with screen-printed Al BSF. With advanced inline processing an independently confirmed efficiency of 17.0% was achieved on 156 cm2 mc-Si, which is a record for complete inline processing. A full size module made of cells processed with this process has a peak power of 94.3Wp, which corresponds to an encapsulated cell efficiency of 16.8%. Roller printing on V-grooved cells resulted in an independently confirmed efficiency of 17.2%. With the hybrid buried contact concept an efficiency, again independently confirmed, of 18.1% was reached on a cell area of 137 cm2; a record for this size. This record cell was used to determine a roadmap towards 20% mc-Si cell efficiency. For that, it is mainly needed to improve the rear side passivation and rear side internal reflection. This can be done with a di-electric layer for passivation and local contacts. Furthermore, the shading losses should be reduced with for example the Angled Buried Contact concept.

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