ECN publication
System Balancing with 6 GW Offshore Wind Energy in the Netherlands - Instruments for Balance Control
Gibescu, M.; Brand, A.J.; Boer, W.W. de
Published by: Publication date:
ECN Wind Energy 9-4-2009
ECN report number: Document type:
ECN-M--09-047 Conference Paper
Number of pages: Full text:
16 Download PDF  

Presented at: 7th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Energy, Madrid, Spain, 26-27 mei 2008.

This paper investigates various alternatives for balance control as may be required by the addition of 6 GW offshore wind in the Netherlands. First, a survey of international experiences with regards to balancing the extra variability and limited predictability introduced by wind energy into power systems is presented. Next, the influence of forecast lead time and aggregation level on the accuracy of short-term wind power predictions is investigated. The importance of continuous wind power forecast updates, which allow for a better allocation of the forecast errors within the operation of conventional generation units in the system, is shown. Pumped storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), and a combination of pumped storage and fast start-up units are compared in terms of their ability to smooth out imbalances due to wind power forecasting errors. In addition, an inverse offshore pump accumulation system (IOPAC) and its control strategy are presented. This storage solution is found to be more efficient at reducing the system imbalance, due to its ability to intelligently trade in the dayahead market. It is shown that aggregating forecast errors at the system level requires less overall reserves; by contrast the advantages of central versus distributed control for the storage system are not obvious. Finally, the concept of shutting down a wind farm gradually as a linear function of increasing wind speed is demonstrated to be better than abrupt shut-down. We conclude with a summary of candidate instruments for balance control that would be most applicable to the foreseen wind energy growth in the Netherlands.

Back to List